What the book tells us?

The book shows the origins of human sexuality, its evolution in biology and society. Against the background of an overall vision of this evolution it also discusses a number of interesting details.

Looking for origins of human sexuality, the author goes back to our knowledge about the life of primitive man. It is extremely difficult to reconstruct this knowledge. The study on found skeletal remains of ancient creatures provide scanty information, so we support a cautious comparisons with animal life, human ancestors and the life of primitive people. In the first case, we refer generally to the analogy of our closest animal cousins - apes, in the second case, the reference point is today's traditional tribes.

The author discusses the findings of science in a critical way, while maintaining a clear, distinctive ternaly order: first, impartial presentation of the knowledge, then his critical analysis, and finally - offering their own hypotheses or suggestions for future research.

Let's start from the beginning ...

The book starts presentation of sexual life of apes and baboons, the author puts special emphasis on collective forms of organization of life, which is the principal regulator of their conduct. Author then proceeds to discuss the existing, albeit a very slim at the moment knowledge about reproductive life of intermediate forms between animal and human beeings, it means: hominins, and so - australopithecus and ardipithecus to end this review on the following forms of man, Homo habilis, Homo erectus, archaic and - finally - a modern Homo sapiens.

Between ape and man

The C. Owen Lovejoy model. With regard to the earliest hominins as the most influential model of reproduction should be considered thouse one proposed by prof. C. Owen Lovejoy. According to him, now about 4 million years ago our ancestors took monogamous pairing system. According to J. A. Kowalski, it is questionable assumptions underlying this concept, namely:

  • the belief in the loss of competition between males for females,
  • about significant reconstruction of the life cycle of the individual at the time,
  • the necessity of taking a food protection by males over females.
Lovejoy's thesis about the gradual weakening of the male sexual apparatus in the history of our species is questionable as well.

The problem of concealment of ovulation in women. The author also polemicizes with another thesis of O. Lovejoy, saying that the total concealment of ovulation in women was designed to curb marital infidelity in our ancestors. He advocates the idea that the grand old labia swelling associated with estrus (similar to those that are today's chimpanzees) were doomed to extinction at the time of acceptance by our ancestors erect posture. With the newly adopted, upright posture these swellings have become simply useless and impractical from both the front and rear parts of the body. Remains a mystery why it did not remain even a slight swelling of the vulva or a specific color or odor-specific signaling in heat. The author presents an original solution to this puzzle, what says the next article "A new look".

Harem-style behavior. Presenting the various hypotheses concerning the collective life of Australopithecus, the author advocates the concept, under which it was based on the dominant male harems (alpha males). Only in times of Homo species, these structures have evolved towards a more egalitarian forms. But mark the old structures still remain in a harem-style behavior, which are aimed at satisfying the sexual needs of the elite.

The man - it sounds proudly...

Our knowledge of the sexual life of the first human species (Homo) is very slim. The author pays particular attention to the controversial case of cross-fertilization of our ancestors with Neanderthals and other species of human.

The R. Wrangham „fire" theory of man birth. The author discusses in detail the famous theory about the role of fire in human evolution, which proposed prof. Richard Wrangham. According to this theory, the use of fire was the main causative factor the whole process of anthropogenesis. Mainly due to the fire and cooked food was to develop the human model of family and marriage, and even ... higher feelings such as love. The author polemicises with these views. He points out that "hard" evidence of fire use by humans dates back about 790 thousand years, and this is much too late to make this invention has played a key role in the process of anthropogenesis. The other manifestation of human intelligence - tools came much too early, around 2.5 million years ago, and are attributed to late australopithecs. "Pro-social" function of fire also seems to be much smaller than it postulated Wrangham, because the social context of eating in primates, and the relationship of eating and sex have a much older roots in the evolution of hominids.

Rebuilding of man biological sexuality. The real revolution in the construction of the human body and its functions must have been to our sexuality might take such a shape that is known to us today. This applies in particular: full year receptivity (activity), on the side of of both sexes, generate different silhouettes for each sex and to rebuild the individual's life cycle, ie, extending the period of youth and extending throughout life.

Unlimited time sexual activity. Especially important was the transformation of our sexual receptivity. It was originally, as in other primates, short-lived, oestrus, whereas in humans has become a year-long, total. The author shows how it was possible for these transformations, referring to the comparison with our animal relatives - chimpanzees bonobos, who was initiated a similar process. Extension of sexual receptivity also applies to men. In mammals, outside of estrus in females, males are sexually indifferent. By the way the author explains why women need much more time than men to achieve orgasm, which is by no means the norm between two partners in the animal world.

Sexual ornament - a woman's breasts, hips, buttocks and thighs. There are many theories to explain the evolutionary function of highlighted breasts, hips or thighs in women. Desmond Morris considers a woman's breasts for the imitation of of buttocks, which are less evident in humans, such copy of buttocks would additionally sexually stimulate men. Another popular concept treats the feminine "bulge" as a reservoir of fat stores accumulated on the "hard times". So far, it not been shown the validity of any competing theories, and therefore also the author presents his views on this issue.

Human sex is always social

Revolutionary changes have occurred also in the collective human sexual life. The most striking change was the gradual equalization. This was especially important for the male part of society - the old system of harems was replaced by such social relations, which allowed every man to find a partner.

It goes youth... In our evolution was quite innovative to produce a separate social category, which is the youth - something not found in other species. Young men are traditionally marginalized in socially living primates, but in humans it has been included in the sphere of community so as to maximize its potential. In this context, the author explains the meaning of the mysterious rites of initiation of maturity, especially of sexual maturity, including treatments such as penile circumcision (cutting off the foreskin). A similar ceremony, but with different functions, is circumcision of girls (excision of the clitoris or labia) or infibulacja (sewing the mouth of the vagina). The author also shows an evolutionary origin of distinctiveness of social and cultural youth groups.

An important change was creation of a sphere of of intimacy in the lives of partners, which clearly distinguishes man from animals and affects the shape of his sex life. The most crucial transformation, however, was that people have captured its mature form of sexual life in marriage.

Origin of marriage

The author discusses various approaches to the origin of human marriage. He considers both previous theories (primary promiscuity, incestuous marriages, group marriages) and the latest concepts, according to which the species Homo from the beginning was accompanied monogamy.

Matriarchy and the cult of femininity. Against this background, it looks very interesting a change of the social position of women. In the final Paleolithic and early Neolithic position of women was very high, some scholars discern even the existence of matriarchy in those days. The earliest traces of the cult of femininity up to 35 thousand years, and these are figures of the so-called Paleolithic "Venus", women with bountiful shapes. Underlying cause of this cult in the hunter community was to create the idea of maternal fertility, based on observations of behavior of wild game.

The primary religion and sexuality. Worldview of primitive man expressed his religious beliefs. The author shows how it came to include beliefs about sexuality in the sphere of religion. Initially, religion was totally asexual, even images of naked, Paleolithic "Venus" had no erotic significance. The main change brought only the invention of agriculture. The cult of femininity, then reached its peak. The formerly Paleolithic female fertility cult of the game imposed a new, also female, the cult of fertility of vegetation.

The cult of male fertility - phallic rites and orgiastic rites. The discovery of agriculture era - the mechanisms of reproduction of plants and animals - have led to the birth of male fertility cult. This cult, and related phallic rites and orgiastic rites, later replaced the cult of femininity. In place of the ancient matriarchal orders was introduced patriarchalism. The cult of masculinity is derived from the primary zootechnical cults - it is because farm animals considered sacred in many religions, and the early temples were the center of the economy. On this occasion, the author explains why at the time it was Easter Monday just the men sprinkle women with water, and not vice versa, and why they feel a special thrill, if they get wet with water an attractive young girl.

About love (almost) everything

When there was love in people's lives? First, the author looks at this feeling from the perspective of biological evolution. However, agrees with the view that love is a product of culture and focuses on the clarification of the concept.

Psychology of love. A lot to say about love is psychology. The most developed theory of love offered to American psychologist Robert Sternberg. The author extensively discusses the theory, as well as an interesting, dynamic variant of this theory by Polish psychologist prof. Bogdan Wojciszke.

The last chapter shows how to organize sexual life first great civilizations of the Ancient East.



Keywords: human sexuality, the genesis of human sexuality, the evolution of human sexuality, desire, attractive girl as a walking stick, sexual life of primitive man - primitive man, primitive peoples, the traditional tribes, human sexual behavior, reproductive system, prof. C. Owen Lovejoy, ardipitheks, mating system, monogamy, intraseksual rivalry,interseksual rivalry, life cycle, male sexual apparatus, ovulation in women, concealment signs of ovulation, swelling vagina, alpha males, dominant males, alpha females, harem system, harem harems behavior, harems, human species, sexual receptivity, sexual activity, sexual silhouette , estrus, oestrus, the period of estrus, the female orgasm, sexual ornamentation, female breast, buttocks, thighs, hips, community life, social life, equalization, young men, sexual initiation, maturity, initiation, circumcision of the penis, foreskin, clitoris, infibulation, labia, mouth of the vagina, intimacy, love life, marriage, origin of marriage, promiscuity, matriarchy, female and male fertility cult, the cult of femininity, patriarchy, matriarchal relations, patriarchal relations, primary religion, Paleolithic "Venus", the cult of masculinity, love, theories of love, prof. Robert Sternberg, the psychology of love, prof. Bogdan Wojciszke, civilizations, ancient East